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BSOD: Binary-only Scalable fuzzing Of device Drivers

Dominik Maier, Fabian Toepfer

Abstract: Operating system code interacting with the devices attached to our computers, device drivers, are often provided by their respective vendors. As they may run with kernel privileges, this effectively means that kernel code is written by third parties. Some of these may not live up to the high security standards the core kernel code abides by. A single bug in a driver can harm the complete operating system’s integrity, just as if the bug was in the kernel itself. Attackers can exploit these bugs to escape sandboxes and to gain system privileges. Automated security testing of device drivers is hard. It depends on the attached device, and the driver code is not freely available. Dependency on a physical device increases the complexity even further. To alleviate these issues, we present BSOD, a fuzzing framework for high-complexity device drivers, based on KVM-VMI. BSOD retargets the well-known and battle-proven fuzzers, Syzkaller and AFL-2++, for binary-only drivers. We do not depend on vendor-specific CPU features and exceed 10k execs/sec on COTS hardware for coverage-guided kernel fuzzing. For evaluation, we focus on the highly complex closed-source drivers of a major graphics-card vendor for multiple operating systems. To overcome the strict hardware dependency of device driver fuzzing, making scaling impractical, we implement BSOD-fakedev, a virtual record & replay device, able to load a full graphics card driver without a physical device attached. It allows to scale fuzz campaigns to a large number of machines without the need for additional hardware. BSOD was able to uncover numerous bugs in graphics card drivers on Windows, Linux, and FreeBSD.
Keywords: Virtualization / Drivers / Kernel Space / Fuzzing / Binary-Only

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