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Tunable Fluid-Type Metasurface for Wide-Angle and Multifrequency Water-Air Acoustic Transmission

Zhandong Huang, Shengdong Zhao, Yiyuan Zhang, Zheren Cai, Zheng Li, Junfeng Xiao, Meng Su, , , Yaozong Pan,
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Abstract: Efficient acoustic communication across the water-air interface remains a great challenge owing to the extreme acoustic impedance mismatch. Few present acoustic metamaterials can be constructed on the free air-water interface for enhancing the acoustic transmission because of the interface instability. Previous strategies overcoming this difficulty were limited in practical usage, as well as the wide-angle and multifrequency acoustic transmission. Here, we report a simple and practical way to obtain the wide-angle and multifrequency water-air acoustic transmission with a tunable fluid-type acoustic metasurface (FAM). The FAM has a transmission enhancement of acoustic energy over 200 times, with a thickness less than the wavelength in water by three orders of magnitude. The FAM can work at an almost arbitrary water-to-air incident angle, and the operating frequencies can be flexibly adjusted. Multifrequency transmissions can be obtained with multilayer FAMs. In experiments, the FAM is demonstrated to be stable enough for practical applications and has the transmission enhancement of over 20 dB for wide frequencies. The transmission enhancement of music signal across the water-air interface was performed to demonstrate the applications in acoustic communications. The FAM will benefit various applications in hydroacoustics and oceanography.
Keywords: acoustic / multifrequency / angle / frequencies / extreme / FAM / water air interface

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