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KERAGAMAN MORFOFISIOLOGI TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT DI LAHAN GAMBUT / Morphophysiology Performances of Oil Palm on Peat Land

Marlina, Mery Hasmeda, Renih Hayati, Dwi Putro Priadi
Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri , Volume 23, pp 98-104; doi:10.21082/littri.v23n2.2017.98-14

Abstract: Oil palm plant (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been extensively cultivated on peat land. The aim of this research was to evaluate morpho-physiology and yield of six years old SJ2 variety. The research was conducted on 2,5 until 4 metres depth, hemiks and in land peat at Muara Enim District, South Sumatera, from May 2012 –January 2013. The design of research was on Randomized Block Designed, with one treatment. The treatment was the trunk apperiance, base on slope degrees between the trunk and soil surface, and 2 replications. The trunk appearances based on degree of slope between the trunk and soil surface, composed of: upright (900), moderate slope (600 ≤ angel < 900), high slope (leaning) (450 ≤ angel <600), and lay down (toppling)(00). The result showed the upright and moderate slope plants had narrow leaflets, short and few frond, low LAI (2,53 and; 2,73) and high primary root population density. The leaned and the toppled plants had broad leaflets; high LAI (6,15 and; 4,33); high root surface area density of secondary root; high root dry weight and low primary root population density. The upright plants had better growth quality than the leaned and toppled plants, with low in leaf Al concentration 105,05 ppm and leaf N : P ratio 13,95 and high yield 2,43 kg FFB /plant /harvest on the first year.Keywords: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., morpho-physiology, peat land, performance. AbstrakTanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) sebagian besar ditanam di lahan gambut. Tujuan penelitian mengevaluasi morfo-fisiologi pertumbuhan dan hasil berdasarkan keragaan tanaman kelapa sawit varietas SJ2 umur 6 tahun. Penelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Muara Enim, Sumatera Selatan, pada lahan gambut dengan kedalaman antara 2,5 sampai 4 meter, hemiks dan in land pada Mei 2012 sampai Januari tahun 2013. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok, satu perlakuan. Perlakuannya adalah ketegakan tanaman kelapa sawit var. SJ2 umur 6 tahun berdasarkan nilai 0 sudut yang terbentuk antara batang dengan permukaan gambut, dengan ulangan sebanyak 2 kali. Perlakuan perbedaan kenampakan tegak batang, yaitu: tegak (900 ), agak miring (600 ≤ sudut < 900 ), sangat miring (450 ≤ sudut < 6 0 ), dan roboh (00 ). Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tanaman dengan keragaan tegak dan agak miring memiliki anak daun sempit, pelepah pendek dan sedikit dengan ILD rendah 2,53 dan 2,73, serta densitas populasi akar primer tinggi. Tanaman yang sangat miring dan rebah memiliki anak daun luas; ILD tinggi 6,15 dan 4,33; densitas luas area permukaan akar sekunder dan bobot kering populasi akar tinggi, tetapi densitas populasi akar primer rendah. Tanaman dengan keragaan yang tegak lebih mempunyai kualitas pertumbuhan yang lebih tinggi dibanding yang sangat miring maupun rebah, dengan konsentrasi Al daun 105,05 ppm maupun rasio N : P daun 13,95 yang rendah. Hasil TBS tertinggi 2,43 kg/tanaman/panen di tahun pertama pada tanaman dengan keragaan tegak.Kata kunci: Elaeis guineensis Jacq.,...
Keywords: physiology / population density / oil palm / soil surface / dengan / Tanaman / Daun / Miring / Tegak / Keragaan

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