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Electromagnetic Simulation for the Diagnosis of Lipoprotein Density in Human Blood, a Non-Invasive Approach

Ethan Law, Monika Kakani, , Maher Rizkalla

Abstract: With the rise in prevalence of Type II diabetes throughout the world, an increasing need for a portable monitoring system for both blood glucose and lipoprotein concentrations is in demand. Recent work has led to non-invasive wearable devices for monitoring changes in blood glucose concentrations using electromagnetic (EM) waves. However, this still fall short as a means of monitoring cholesterol levels in diabetic patients. The EM study on human tissues emphasized here may also relate to the safety guidelines applied to cellular communications, power lines, and other EM applications. The specific absorption rate (SAR) for the power of the non-ionizing frequency must not exceed a threshold as it impacts DNA and can lead to cancerous tissues. In this study, we used COMSOL software for the investigation of the viability of using EM within the frequency range of 64 MHz-1 GHz as a means of monitoring the transmission properties of human blood and lipoprotein. In this approach, wave equations were solved within blood and lipoprotein boundaries. Research parameters, including frequency range, Power input (SAR), and lipoprotein densities, were investigated. The transmission properties, produced by the electrical and thermal characteristics of these physiological parameters, have led to proper diagnosis of lipoprotein density. Within the frequency range of 64 MHz to 1 GHz, and for a power range of 0.1 to 0.6 SAR, lipoprotein density from 1.00 g/mL to 1.20 g/mL was considered. A 2D model, with an antenna source that supplied the electromagnetic waves to human tissues, was created for the simulations. These were used for the study of the transmission properties of the EM energy into the blood and lipoprotein tissues. While the range of magnetic flux values between simulations varies only slightly or not at all, the distribution of these values is impacted by given parameters. As such, a device capable of comparing magnetic flux values and penetration depths could easily distinguish between samples of different lipoprotein densities. The results obtained in this study can be accommodated non-invasively by human tissues, and can be produced in a practical model using wearable devices. A practical model is proposed for future consideration.
Keywords: Non-Invasive Monitoring / Cholesterol / Electromagnetic / Biosensors / Wearable Devices

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