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Metabolic syndrome and adipokine levels in systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis

Antonietta Gigante, Francesco Iannazzo, Luca Navarini, Maria Chiara Sgariglia, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Valentina Vaiarello, Federica Foti, Antonella Afeltra, Rosario Cianci,
Clinical Rheumatology pp 1-6; doi:10.1007/s10067-021-05731-6

Abstract: Introduction Aims of study were to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and to evaluate serum level of adipokines in SLE and SSc patients with and without MetS. Methods Fifty SLE patients and 85 SSc patients were enrolled. The diagnosis of MetS was made according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III. Clinical assessment and serum levels of adiponectin and resistin were evaluate in SLE and SSc patients. Results Prevalence of MetS was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in SLE patients than SSc patients (36% vs 10.6%). Median values of resistin were significantly (p<0.001) higher in SLE patients with MetS than SLE patients without MetS [4.01 ng/mL (2.7–4.5) vs 1.92 ng/mL (1.2–3)]. Median values of adiponectin were significantly (p<0.05) lower in SLE patients with MetS than SLE patients without MetS [5.64 ng/mL (4.96–8) vs 8.38 ng/mL (6.54–11.01)]. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Index [8 (6–12) vs 10 (6–13), p<0.01] and Systemic Damage Index [2 (1–3) vs 2 (0–3), p<0.001] were significantly higher in MetS patients than in patients without MetS. In SSc, the median value of disease severity scale was significantly higher (p<0.05) in MetS patients than in patients without MetS [7 (5–7) vs 5 (3–6)]. Conclusion Prevalence of MetS is higher in SLE patients. In SLE patients, MetS showed an association with adipokine levels and inflammation/activity disease scores. In SSc patients, MetS was associated with severity of disease. Key Points • Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in SLE patients than SSc patients. • Resistin is higher in SLE patients with metabolic syndrome. • Adineponectin is lower in SLE patients with metabolic syndrome. • Disease severity scale is higher in SSc patients with metabolic syndrome.
Keywords: Adiponectin / Systemic lupus erythematosus / Resistin / Metabolic syndrome / Systemic sclerosis / Adipokines

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