Synthesis of nanosize zinc oxide through aqueous sol–gel route in polyol medium
Abstract: Background: This study is aimed to synthesize nanosize zinc oxide by acid catalyzed sol–gel process using zinc nitrate hexahydrate as precursor, aqueous isopropanol as solvent and glycerin for making polyol system. The polyol mediated procedure was employed in combination with calcination induced synthesis of nanoparticles of numerous sizes obtained with the variation in calcination temperature from 500 to 900 ℃. The crystal structure of the prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Infrared spectroscopy (IR) was used to identify the surface hydroxyl groups. Thermal stability was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA) whereas field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to study the surface morphology of nanoparticles. Results: Results revealed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of irregular shaped nanoparticles having size ranging from 50–100 nm. However, the particles combined to form agglomerates of 200–400 nm with the rise in calcination temperature. Conclusions: These results indicate that nanosize zinc oxide can be synthesized successfully by a simple process comprising of glycerin as a low-cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly polyol followed by calcination at ambient temperatures.
Keywords: Zinc oxide / Sol–gel process / Polyol system / Nanoparticles / Crystal structure / Surface morphology
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