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ANALISIS MATERIAL KOMPOSIT BERBASIS SERAT PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT DAN MATRIKS POLYPROPYLENE SEBAGAI BAHAN PEMBUATAN BUMPER MOBIL

Rizal Hanifi, Gebyar Dewangga, Kardiman Kardiman, Eri Widianto
Gorontalo Journal of Infrastructure and Science Engineering , Volume 2, pp 15-23; doi:10.32662/gojise.v2i2.712

Abstract: Research has been carried out on the analysis of mechanical properties and simulation of composite failure of oil palm midrib fiber polypropylene matrix as car bumpers. This research is expected to provide information on the results of testing the mechanical properties and physical properties and to find out the results of failure simulation in stress analysis based on static test using Inventor Professional 2015 software. Composite boards are made using the hot press method with three variations volume fraction is 20% fiber: 80% matrix, 30% fiber: 70% matrix and 40% fiber: 60% matrix. Characterization of composite physical properties in the form of density, swelling, and water uptake while mechanical properties in the form of tensile testing. Composite physical test results showed that composites made according to JIS A5908 (2003) composite tensile test results showed that the maximum tensile strength obtained at the volume fraction of 40% fiber: 60% matrix with a value of 21.106 MPa, followed by a decrease in tensile strength in volume fraction 30% fiber: 70% matrix and 20% fiber: 80% matrix. Increased tensile strength due to direct orientation of fibers and the addition of fiber composition. Composites are still worth making bumper because the value of tensile strength is no less than the standard bumper which is 8,09 MPa. Next, failure simulation results based on a static test uses three variations of speed, namely 60 km/hr, 80 km/hr and 100 km/hr. The failure simulation results based on the static test of the three speed variations show the value of the von misses stress below the yield strength of the material, then the displacement value that occurs is small and the value of the safety factor produced is above one. From the results of the analysis of composite testing, it shows that the composite has the potential to be a car bumper material.Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang analisis sifat mekanik dan simulasi kegagalan komposit serat pelepah kelapa sawit matriks polypropylene sebagai bumper mobil. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberi informasi hasil pengujian sifat mekanik dan sifat fisis serta mengetahui hasil simulasi kegagalan dalam stress analysis berdasarkan static test menggunakan software Inventor Professional 2015. Papan komposit dibuat menggunakan metode hot press dengan tiga variasi fraksi volume yaitu 20% serat: 80% matriks, 30% serat: 70% matriks dan 40% serat: 60% matriks. Karakterisasi sifat fisis komposit berupa densitas, swelling, dan serapan air sedangkan sifat mekanik berupa pengujian tarik. Hasil pengujian fisis komposit menunjukkan bahwa komposit yang dibuat sesuai dengan klasifikasi JIS A5908. Hasil pengujian tarik komposit menunjukkan bahwa nilai kekuatan tarik maksimal yang paling besar diperoleh pada fraksi volume 40% serat: 60% matriks dengan nilai 21,106 MPa, diikuti penurunan kekuatan tarik pada fraksi volume 30% serat: 70% matriks dan 20% serat: 80% matriks. Meningkatnya kekuatan tarik dikarenakan orientasi serat searah dan penambahan komposisi serat. Komposit masih layak dibuat bumper karena nilai kekuatan tariknya tidak kurang dari standar bumper yaitu 8,09 MPa. Selanjunya, hasil simulasi kegagalan berdasarkan static test menggunakan tiga variasi kecepatan yaitu 60 km/jam, 80 km/jam dan 100 km/jam. Hasil simulasi kegagalan berdasarkan static test dari ketiga variasi kecepatan tersebut menunjukkan nilai von misses stress dibawah nilai yield strength yang dimiliki material, kemudian nilai displacement yang terjadi kecil serta nilai safety factor yang dihasilkan yaitu di atas satu. Dari hasil analisis pengujian komposit tersebut menunjukkan bahwa komposit berpotensi sebagai material bumper mobil
Keywords: stress analysis / volume / Static Test / Car Bumpers / Pelepah kelapa / matriks dan / matriks polypropylene / SERAT PELEPAH

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