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Development and Efficiency Assessment of New Methods on Rapid Assessment of Toxicity in Environmental Monitoring

E. A. Lushchay, Sciprofile linkD. E. Ivanov, E. I. Tikhomirova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology ; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-458-469

Abstract: The transformation of hazardous pollutants in the environment usually results in formation of hard-to-identify compounds that may have a significant impact on ecosystems. They are difficult to identify by conventional methods of quantitative chemical analysis, but their detrimental effects can be detected by biological methods. The goal of this study was to develop novel methodological approaches to the express assessment of the state of the environment as well as toxicity of its components in the process of biological monitoring at hazardous industrial facilities. The article presents the results of comprehensive toxicity assessment of environmental objects using originally developed system of express methods. The objects of research were water fleas (Daphnia magna Straus and Ceriodaphnia affinis Lilljeborg), infusoria (Paramecium caudatum), preparation of lyophilized fluorescent bacteria based on recombinant Escherichia coli strain M-17 (Ecolum), algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb.), and mammalian gonads. The original methods for determining toxicity by changing the motor activity of water fleas at elevated temperatures of the studied environment are described. The description of the following original utility models is presented: “Method of bioassay for water samples and device for its implementation”, “Device for express assessment of natural environment quality” and “Device for comprehensive assessment of natural environment quality”, confirmed by the patents of the Russian Federation. Their use may significantly reduce the cost of ecotoxicological studies in terms of time and money expenditures. The effectiveness of the system of express methods was established during a biological monitoring of a sanitary protection zone of the Balakovo NPP. Toxicity of the samples of bottom sediments, soil, as well as water samples from the cooler pond and the adjacent water area of the Saratov reservoir were identified. The bioassay results were matched by both conventional methods’ results and originally developed system of express methods.
Keywords: models / bioassay / biological monitoring / Toxicity Assessment / Conventional Methods / Express Assessment / originally developed system

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