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Profil Senyawa Kimia Minyak Atsiri Sereh Wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L.) Hasil Hidrodistilasi dengan Optimasi Perlakuan Awal Sonikasi

Dede Sukandar, Anny Sulaswatty, Imam Hamidi
Published: 22 September 2022

Abstract: Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai profil senyawa kimia minyak atsiri sereh wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L.) hasil hidrodistilasi dengan optimasi perlakuan awal sonikasi, yang bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan awal sonikasi terhadap karakteristik dan profil kimia minyak atsiri sereh wangi. Proses perlakuan awal sonikasi dilakukan menggunakan tiga jenis variabel yang berbeda, yaitu waktu sonikasi, solvent feedstock (SF) ratio, dan amplitudo. Hidrodistilasi minyak atsiri sereh wangi dilakukan pada temperatur 116 ‒ 120 ℃ dan waktu distilasi 8 jam. Minyak sereh wangi hasil hidrodistilasi dilakukan uji indeks bias dengan refraktometer, berat jenis dengan piknometer, kelarutan dalam etanol 80% dan ditentukan profil kimianya menggunakan GC-MS. Minyak sereh wangi yang dihasilkan berat jenis 0,9136 g/mL, indeks bias 1,472 ‒ 1,474 dan larut dalam etanol 80%, yang sesuai dengan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 06-3593-1995. Rendemen minyak atsiri sereh wangi tertinggi 1,62% diperoleh pada waktu sonikasi 60 menit, SF Ratio 20:1(mL/g), dan amplitudo 90%. Perlakuan awal sonikasi telah mempersingkat waktu proses hidrodistilasi 47,54%. Berdasarkan hasil analisa GC-MS komponen kimia utama minyak atsiri sereh wangi yaitu Citronella (13,67%), Citronellol (21,18%), dan Geraniol (21,32%). Chemical Compound Profile of Citronella Essential Oil (Cymbopogon nardus L.) as Hydrodistillation Result with Optimization of Sonication Pretreatment. The research optimization of hydrodistillation using ultrasonic pretreatment of Citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus L.) has been carried out, which aims to determine the effect of pretreatment of sonication on the characteristics of citronella essential oils. The sonication pretreatment process was done using three different types of variables, including the sonication time variable, SF Ratio, and amplitude. Hydrodistillation was performed at a temperature of 116 ‒ 120 ℃ and a processing time of 8 hours. Citronella oil was characterized by analyzing the results of the refractive index with refractometer, specific gravity with pycnometer, solubility in ethanol 80%, and their chemical components determined by GC-MS. Citronella oil produced has a specific gravity of 0.9136 g/mL, soluble in ethanol 80%, and the refractive index value of 1.472 to 1.474, which are in accordance with Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 06-3593-1995. The highest yield of citronella oil of 1.62% in this study was obtained at a sonication time of 60 minutes, SF ratio of 20:1, and amplitude of 90%. The ultrasonic treatment can shorten the processing time by 47.54%. Based on GC-MS analysis, the major components in citronella essential oil are Citronella (13.67%), Citronellol (21.18%), and Geraniol (21.32%).
Keywords: Essential Oil / citronella essential / SF Ratio / Citronella oil / Cymbopogon nardus / g/mL / Awal Sonikasi Telah

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