Vitamin B12 enhances the antitumor activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 via activation of caspases and targeting actin cytoskeleton
Abstract: BACKGROUND: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is an effective anticancer agent, and when combined with other agents it shows superior activities. Vitamin B12 has been shown to contribute to increasing the effectiveness of anticancer drugs when used in combination. Thus, the current study aimed at investigating the anticancer potential of the combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12. METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity of combining 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12 against six different cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. The surviving fraction after clonogenic assay was measured, and the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/B12 combination on the activity of different caspases, cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, cell morphology, and percentage of polarized cells were evaluated. RESULTS: Vitamin B12 did not cause cytotoxicity, however, it enhanced the cytotoxicity of 1,25(OH)2D3 against cancer cells. The cytotoxic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its combination with vitamin B12 was not evident in the normal mammary MCF10A cell line indicating cancer cell-specificity. The cytotoxic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/B12 combination occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was attributed to apoptosis induction which was mediated by caspase 4 and 8. Moreover, 1,25(OH)2D3/B12-treated cells showed enhanced inhibition of clonogenic tumor growth, reduced cell adhesion, reduced cell area, reduced percentage of cell polarization, and disorganized actin cytoskeleton resulting in reduced migratory phenotype when compared to cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone. CONCLUSION: 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12 exhibited synergistic anticancer effects against different cancer cell lines. The combination therapy of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12 may provide a potential adjunctive treatment option for some cancer types.
Keywords: MTT assay / 2D3 / actin cytoskeleton / caspases / vitamin B12 / cell adhesion
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