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Risk Factors Contributing to Microbiological Contamination of Boreholes and Hand Dug Wells Water in the Vina Division, Adamawa, Cameroon

Tangwa Bernard Viban, Okah-Nnane Ndode Herman, Tangwa Clotilda Layu, Oumarou Palou Madi, Emmanuel N. Nfor, Manchang Tanyi Kingsly, Bah Germanus, Ngu Ngwa Victor, Ngakou Albert

Abstract: This study examined the sanitary conditions of public boreholes and hand dug wells water in relation to pathogenic bacteria isolated in water samples. To assess the suitability of drinking water, sanitary inspection of surroundings of the sources was conducted, membrane filtration technic was used to trap the microorganisms in the water sample and other standard microbiological technics were applied to check the heterotrophic plate counts, total coliforms, fecal coliforms and some pathogenic bacteria in the samples. It was observed that there were no delineated protection zones around many boreholes (61.19%) and in almost all hand dug wells; thus, hand dug wells were pruned to more contamination than boreholes. Heterotrophic plate counts of boreholes were significantly different between (p E. coli 157H in some. Risk assessment of factors contributing to water contamination showed that: pumps manipulation with feet, other sources of contamination such as wastewater dumps, within 10m were significantly associated to boreholes contamination with Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureuse, fecal coliform (p = 0.01); in hand dug wells, presence of latrine or septic tank soak-away within 10 m of the wells, poor depth and lack of internal lining, uncapped wells, presence of trees near the wells, animal and birds feces, were significant and associated to contamination with Salmonela spp., B. cepaceae, S. aureus E. coli 1 (p < 0.05). Generally water collection points are marked with very poor sanitary conditions and this situation may not change unless the contaminating risk factors are fixed and sanitary measures are taken.
Keywords: Boreholes Hand Dug Wells / Risk Factors / Sanitation / E. coli / 157H Public Health

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