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Assessment of professional bereavement: The development and validation of the Professional Bereavement Scale

Chuqian Chen,
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-11; doi:10.1017/s1478951521000250

Abstract: Objectives To develop and validate Professional Bereavement Scale (PBS), a specific measurement tool for professional bereavement experiences. Methods An online cross-sectional survey collected data from 563 physicians and nurses from urban hospitals in Mainland China. Item consistency analysis, component factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were run to develop and validate the scale. Correlational analysis was conducted to evaluate the psychometric property of the scale. Results Two subscales of the PBS were developed: the 17-item Short-term Bereavement Reactions Subscale (PBS–SBR) and the 15-item Accumulated Global Changes Subscale (PBS–AGC). Four factors, namely, frustration and trauma, guilt, grief, and being moved, are involved in PBS–SBR. Five factors are involved in PBS–AGC, which are new insights, more acceptance of limitations, more death-related anxiety, less influenced by patient deaths, and better coping with patient deaths. Both subscales have good content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity, as well as satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Significance of results PBS is a specific assessment tool for professional bereavement which is clearly defined, comprehensive, rigorously tested, and generalizable to different professional caregivers from various departments. Unveiled constructs illustrate that professional bereavement experiences contain a professional dimension in addition to a personal dimension both in an event-specific and a global perspective, which distinguishes them from familial bereavement experiences.
Keywords: Accumulated global changes / Nurse / Physician / Professional Bereavement Scale / Short-term bereavement reactions

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