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Case Report: Interferon-γ Restores Monocytic Human Leukocyte Antigen Receptor (mHLA-DR) in Severe COVID-19 With Acquired Immunosuppression Syndrome

, Clemens Grimm, Katharina Amschler, Sebastian Uwe Schnitzler, Julie Schanz, Onnen Moerer, Didier Payen, Bjoern Tampe, Martin Sebastian Winkler
Published: 7 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology , Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.645124

Abstract: Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II characterized by monocytes CD14+ expression of human leukocyte antigen receptors (HLA-DR), is essential for the synapse between innate and adaptive immune response in infectious disease. Its reduced expression is associated with a high risk of secondary infections in septic patients and can be safely corrected by Interferon-y (IFNy) injection. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) induces an alteration of Interferon (IFN) genes expression potentially responsible for the observed low HLA-DR expression in circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR). Methods We report a case of one-time INFy injection (100 mcg s.c.) in a superinfected 61-year-old man with COVID-19–associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with monitoring of mHLA-DR expression and clinical tolerance. Observations Low mHLA-DR pretreatment expression (26.7%) was observed. IFNy therapy leading to a rapid increase in mHLA-DR expression (83.1%). Conclusions Severe ARDS in a COVID-19 patient has a deep reduction in mHLA-DR expression concomitantly with secondary infections. The unique IFNy injection was safe and led to a sharp increase in the expression of mHLA-DR. Based on immune and infection monitoring, more cases of severe COVID-19 patients with low mHLA-DR should be treated by IFNy to test the clinical effectiveness.
Keywords: ARDS / case report / interferon- gamma / COVID - 19 / Intensive Care / SARS – CoV – 2 / MHLA-DR / Aquired immune deficiency syndrome

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