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Pengelompokan 33 Aksesi Kakao Berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi Komponen Buah

Edi Wardiana, Juniaty Towaha, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar , Volume 4, pp 67-78; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p67-78

Abstract: Identification and grouping of diverse cacao accessions based on morphological character of pod components is important in breeding activities to generate superior varieties. This study aimed to grouping 33 cocoa accessions based on morphological characters of pod components, conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java, at an altitude of 450 asl with Latosol soil and B type climate (Schmidt and Fergusson), from January until December 2015. Observation was taken on 33 cacao accessions of Kaliwining (KW), planted in 2012 with 3 m x 3 m spacing under 26 years old Genjah Salak coconut trees as shading. Ten mature pods were randomly harvested from 10 cocoa plants of each accession at respective two seasons (February and December 2015). The variables observed were 7 characters of pod components i.e.: (1) fresh weight of pod, (2) number of beans, (3) fresh weight of beans, (4) dry weight of beans, (5) fresh weight of pod husk, (6) number of pod furrow, and (7) fresh weight of pulp. Data were analyzed by factor analysis followed by hierarchical cluster analysis in Ward's method and discriminant analysis. The result showed that 19 accessions were classified as high in bean and pod husk component characters, 9 accessions were classified as high in pulp characters, and 5 accessions i.e. KW 162, KW 528, KW 570, KW 571, and KW 720 were classified as high in all characters of pod components, and potential as parents in generating superior cacao varieties.
Keywords: BREEDING / Factor analysis / ASL / beans / cacao / accessions / Pod Components / analysis followed by hierarchical cluster / characters of pod

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