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PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA PERIKANAN MELALUI PENDEKATAN EKOSISTEM DI PAPARAN BANJIRAN GIAM SIAK KECIL

Kamaluddin Kasim, Eko Prianto, Husnah Husnah, Setiya Triharyuni
Jurnal Kebijakan Perikanan Indonesia , Volume 9, pp 115-124; doi:10.15578/jkpi.9.2.2017.115-124

Abstract: Cagar biosfir Giam Siak Kecil (GSK) merupakan ekosistem paparan banjiran yang unik dengan sumberdaya ikan yang beragam. Terdapat beberapa permasalahan terkait pemanfaatan sumberdaya perikanan diantaranya penurunan jumlah dan jenis sumberdaya perikanan. Salah satu upaya pengelolaan perikanan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan ekosistem (Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management/EAFM). Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk merumuskan pengelolaan sumberdaya perikanan melalui pendekatan ekosistem di rawa banjiran GSK Provinsi Riau. Jenis ikan yang ditemukan sebanyak 37 jenis ikan, 10 jenis diantaranya merupakan ikan ekonomis penting, sementara 5 jenis ikan mengalami kelangkaan diantaranya arwana (Schleropages aureus), belida (Chitala sp), patin (Pangasius sp), jalai (Channa maruliodes). Nilai beberapa domain pada pengelolaan perikanan GSK menunjukkan skor pada kategori buruk (dibawah reference point) yakni pada domain penangkapan, kelembagaan dan ekonomi. Namun, secara umum kondisi pengelolaan rawa banjiran GSK tergolong dalam kategori sedang (nilai 1,53). Focus group discussion merumuskan langkah-langkah pengelolaan yang diperlukan diantaranya: 1) restocking ikan asli. 2) pengembangan kawasan suaka perikanan, 3) peningkatan pengawasan terhadap praktek-praktek penangkapan ikan ilegal dan merusak, 4) penguatan kelembagaan pengelolaan perikanan, dan 5) monitoring hasil tangkapan ikan beserta evaluasi pengelolaannya.Giam Siak Kecil Biosphere Reserve is a part of unique floodplain ecosystem, which is inhabited by various fresh water fish species. The catches of some native species have curtailed over the last decade since the local fishers often use destructive fishing practices and gears. A sustainable management approach needs to be addressed to avoid over-exploitation and to restore the stock. This research aimed to formulate proper management approach that can be applied to the floodplain ecosystem of Giam Siak Kecil Biosphere Reserve. The research found that at least 37 species of fish were recorded, 10 of them were economically important species. There were five species categorized as rare species such as Arwana (Schleropages aureus), Belida (Chitala sp), Patin (Pangasius sp), and Jalai (Channa maruliodes). EAFM indikators showed that the lowest score (below the reference point) were found on fishery domain, organization domain, and economy domain. Nevertheless, it could be concluded that floodplain ecosystem of Giam Siak Kecil Biosphere Reserve was categorized in middle class category, with average scores of 1.53. Based on the findings above, the formulation of management purposed should be addressed to: 1) restocking native fishes, 2) developing fishery sanctuary, 3) increase surveillance of illegal fishing practices, 4) strengthening fishers organizations, 5) monitoring and evaluating the catch on weekly or monthly basis.
Keywords: fishery / fishery / fishery / fresh water / fresh water / fresh water / fresh water / pengelolaan / pengelolaan / Perikanan / Perikanan / rare species / rare species / Siak Kecil / Sumberdaya / Sumberdaya

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