The Genetic Basis of Vitiligo
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; doi:10.1016/j.jid.2020.06.004
Abstract: Vitiligo is a complex disease in which autoimmune destruction of epidermal melanocytes results in patches of depigmented white skin. Vitiligo has an estimated prevalence of about 0.2–2% in different populations and approximately 0.4% in the European-derived white (EUR) population. The fraction of disease risk attributable to genetic variation, termed heritability, is high, with estimates from family studies in EUR of 0.75–0.83 and from SNP based studies estimated at 0.78. About 70% of genetic risk comes from common genetic variants and about 30% from rare genetic variants. Through candidate gene, genomewide linkage, and genomewide association studies, over 50 vitiligo susceptibility loci have been discovered. These have been combined into a vitiligo polygenic risk score, which has allowed various aspects of vitiligo genetic architecture in the EUR population to be better understood. Vitiligo has thus proved to be a particularly tractable model for investigation of complex disease genetic architecture. Here, we summarize progress to date including dissection of heritability, discovery of vitiligo susceptibility loci through candidate gene, genomewide linkage, and genomewide association studies, relationships to other autoimmune diseases, polygenic architecture of vitiligo risk, vitiligo triggering, and disease onset, and provide suggestions for future directions.
Keywords: CHN; Han Chinese population; h2; heritability; h2FAM; family-based heritability; h2SNP; DNA-based estimates of heritability; EUR; European-derived white population; MHC; major histocompatibility complex
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