OX40-OX40L Inhibition for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis—Focus on Rocatinlimab and Amlitelimab
Abstract: Despite the recent emergence of targeted therapeutic options, there are still unmet needs concerning moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis treatment. This review aims to discuss the OX40-OX40L pathway as a therapeutic target for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. OX40 and OX40L are two checkpoint molecules that bind to potentiate pro-inflammatory T-cell responses that are pivotal to atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. Two OX40-OX40L inhibitors, rocatinlimab and amlitelimab, are being developed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Rocatinlimab, an anti-OX40 antibody, was evaluated in phase 2b, a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. At week 16, rocatinlimab groups achieved a greater reduction in the EASI percentage change from the baseline (−48.3% to −61.1%) against the placebo (−15.0%; p < 0.001), and clinical response was maintained 20 weeks after the treatment had ceased. Amlitelimab, an anti-OX40L antibody, was studied in a 12-week treatment phase 2a clinical trial, with a significant efficacy response observed within 2 weeks. At week 16, amlitelimab groups reached the EASI mean percentage change from the baseline of −69.9% and −80.1% versus the placebo (−49.4%; p = 0.072 and p = 0.009). Among the responders, 68% of amlitelimab patients were sustained 24 weeks following the last dose. Both treatments were shown to be safe and well tolerated. Current evidence points to OX40-OX40L inhibitors as future options for atopic dermatitis treatment with potential disease-modifying effects.
Keywords: OX40 / OX40-OX40L / rocatinlimab / amlitelimab / atopic dermatitis
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