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The Profile of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Gene in Childhood Leukemia at “Dharmais” Cancer Hospital

Mururul Aisyi, Puji Lestari, Siti Nadliroh, Anita Meisita, Didin Solachudin, Dewi Kristanti, Adhitya Bayu Perdana, Bambang Karsono
Indonesian Journal of Cancer , Volume 14; doi:10.33371/ijoc.v14i3.729

Abstract: Background: BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, which originated from t (9;22), is an important biomarker for diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and prognosis in childhood leukemia. However, there are no data in Indonesia about the profile of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene for this disease. This study intends to demonstrate the profile of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in childhood leukemia at “Dharmais” Cancer Hospital.Methods: This descriptive retrospective study included 79 patients with childhood leukemia who performed the BCR-ABL1 examination in “Dharmais” Cancer Hospital during 2008–2018. Demographic data, leukemia types, BCR-ABL1 examination results, and protein isoforms developed by BCR-ABL1 fusion were obtained from Cancer Registry Data.Results: Among 79 patients’ data recorded in this study, 65.8% (52/79) were male and 34.2% (27/79) were female. A total of 74.7% (59/79) patients were diagnosed with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), 21.5% (17/79) with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), and 3.8% (3/79) with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML). The profile of positive BCR-ABL1 in CML patients was 72.8% (43/59). About 97.7% (42/43) of CML patients with positive BCR-ABL1 fusion gene expressed 210-kDa protein, while only 2.3% (1/43) expressed 190-kDa protein.Conclusions: This study found that, from a total of 79 respondents, 45 of them showed a positive BCR-ABL result, with details of 43 in CML and 2 in ALL. Among the total of 43 CML patients with positive BCR-ABL1, 42 (97.7%) of them expressed 210-kDa protein isoform. Further research to investigate the relationship between protein isoforms and their clinical effects may also be important to discuss. The valuable recommendation suggests that BCR-ABL1 examination should be performed for all childhood leukemia patients in Indonesia, especially for CML and ALL.
Keywords: Protein / Leukemia / Kda / Fusion Gene / BCR ABL1 / Gene Expressed / Abl1 Fusion

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