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Removing Mn, Cu and Fe from Real Wastewaters with Macrophytes: Reviewing the Relationship between Environmental Factors and Plants’ Uptake Capacity

Published: 7 February 2023
 by  MDPI
 in Toxics

Abstract: Heavy metal pollution creates environmental health concerns. Among these, iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are commonly found in aquatic environments due to the release of wastewaters. Phytoremediation in hydroponics uses macrophytes to treat contaminated environments, and this is influenced by environmental factors. However, the relationship between these factors and the removal of Fe, Cu and Mn by macrophytes is not known. Therefore, a meta-analysis serves to determine the correlations between environmental factors and the removal of these metals in real wastewater by macrophytes, as well as to identify the role of different aquatic forms of macrophytes in phytoremediation. Emergent macrophytes had higher concentrations of manganese in their tissues, and higher bioconcentrations factor of iron and manganese than floating plants. Regardless of the biotope, higher concentrations of Fe and Cu decreased the ability of plants to bioconcentrate them. The correlations among exposure time, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, photoperiod and metal phytoremediation by plants were also found. It can be concluded that the emergent macrophytes showed better performance in terms of the removal of Fe, Cu and Mn, and that the significant correlations between environmental factors and removal vary with the type of metal and the environmental factor analyzed.
Keywords: toxicity / phytoextraction / biotope / eco-friendly technology / full scale

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