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Combination of Immunotherapy and Radiotherapy for Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: Results From a Prospective Study

Haihui Jiang, Kefu Yu, Yong Cui, Xiaohui Ren, Mingxiao Li, Chuanwei Yang, Xuzhe Zhao, Qinghui Zhu,
Published: 7 May 2021
Frontiers in Immunology , Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.632547

Abstract: Background World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV glioma remains one of the most lethal tumors with a dismal prognosis and inevitable recurrence. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of immunotherapy with radiotherapy in this population of patients. Methods This study was a single-arm, open-label, phase I trial based on patients with recurrent WHO grade IV glioma. Patients were treated with intracranial and systemic immunoadjuvants in combination with low-dose reirradiation. The primary endpoint of the present trial was safety. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). This trial is registered at, NCT03392545. Results Thirty patients were enrolled. The most common adverse events (AEs) were fever (66.7%), vomiting (33.3%), headache (30.0%), and fatigue (23.3%). Only a single patient experienced grade 3 fever, and no grade 4 AEs or deaths related to treatment were observed. Of the 30 patients, 1 (3.3%) had a complete response, 5 (16.7%) had a partial response, 9 (30.0%) had stable disease, and 15 (50.0%) had progressive disease, resulting in an objective response rate of 20.0%. The median PFS of the entire cohort was 88.0 (61.0-254.0) days, and the median OS was 362.0 (197.0-601.0) days. Patients could be divided into responders and non-responders, and these groups exhibited a significant difference in terms of survival time, T lymphocyte subsets, frequency of cell division cycle 27 (CDC27) mutation status, and CD15 and CD68 expression (P<0.05). Conclusion The combination of immunotherapy and radiotherapy is well tolerated and may provide clinical benefit for patients with recurrent WHO grade IV glioma. A prospective phase II study is needed to further validate the efficacy of our therapeutic regimen.
Keywords: Immunotherapy / immuno-oncology / reirradiation / Malignant gliomas / immunoadjuvant

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