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Re-Assembly of Archaeological Massive Limestones Using Epoxy Resin Modified with Nanomaterials—Part 1: Experimental

Mohammad A. Aldosari, Sawsan S. Darwish, Mahmoud A. Adam, Nagib A. Elmarzugi, Sayed M. Ahmed
Green and Sustainable Chemistry , Volume 10, pp 24-38; doi:10.4236/gsc.2020.101003

Abstract: Massive limestones were used in construction of ancient Egyptian tombs, temples, obelisks and other sculptures. These stones are always exposed to physico-mechanical deterioration and destructive forces, leading to partial or total collapse. The task of reassembling this type of artifacts represents a big challenge for the conservators. Recently, the researchers are turning to new technologies to improve the properties of traditional adhesive materials and techniques used in re-assembly of broken massive stones. The epoxy resins are used extensively in stone conservation and re-assembly of broken stones because of their outstanding mechanical properties. The adding of nanoparticles to polymeric adhesives at low percentages may lead to substantial improvements of their mechanical performances in structural joints and massive objects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of montmorillonite clay, calcium carbonate, and silicon dioxide nanoparticles for enhancing the performances of epoxy adhesives used in re-assembly of archaeological massive limestones. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed in order to investigate the morphology of the prepared nanocomposites, and the distribution of nanoparticles inside the composites. Artificial aging, tensile, compressive, and elongation strength tests were used to evaluate the efficiency of epoxy-nanocomposites. The results showed that the epoxy-clay nanocomposites exhibited superior tensile, compressive, and elongation strength, in addition to improving the mechanical properties of stone joints.
Keywords: nanocomposites / epoxy / assembly of archaeological / archaeological massive limestones

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