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A Study on Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Risk Factors in New and Re-Treated Presumptive Patients at Wad Madani Tuberculosis Center, Sudan (2018-2019): A Cross-Sectional Study

Zeinab H. Alfaham, Elhadi A. Ahmed, Elamin M. Ibrahim, Mohamed Soud Mohamed, Ameer A. Mohamed, Ayman Mahjob, Mubarak A. Elshafia, Bakri Y. M. Nour

Abstract: Introduction: The increase in cases of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, especially in endemic areas, is mainly associated with re-treatment, although resistant tubercle bacilli can be easily transmitted between all susceptible persons. Objective: The study aimed to describe pulmonary tuberculosis, risk factors and MDR in new and re-treated suspected patients attending Wad Madani Tuberculosis Center that provides service in central Sudan. Methods: Cross-sectional laboratory based study among 300 presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis patients during 2018 and 2019 was conducted. Cases were divided into new and re-treated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and rpoB gene of multi-drug resistance (MDR) were detected in sputum samples by GeneXpert assay as manufacturer instructions. Results: Out of 300 suspected participants, 34% (103/300) were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis using GeneXpert method. The frequency of males, the age group from 21 to 40 and rural housing were the most with percentage reach 68% (70/103), 51% (53/103) and 58.3% (60/103) respectively. All observed symptoms were significantly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. New cases represented 59.2% (61/103) while re-treated was 40.8% (39/103). The overall frequency of MDR patients was 9.7% (10/103) of which 50% (5/103) had relapse situation. Conclusion: It appeared that the cases of MDR pulmonary tuberculosis are on the increase compared to previous findings, recommended measures must be taken to control the spread of tuberculosis and the causes of re-treatment and relapse must be studied.
Keywords: MDR / Pulmonary Tuberculosis / Relapse / Sudan

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