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Associations between Task-Related Modulation of Motor-Evoked Potentials and EEG Event-Related Desynchronization in Children with ADHD

, Nicolaas A Puts, Stewart H Mostofsky, Paul S Horn, Donald L Gilbert
Published: 7 July 2021

Abstract: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously shown a decreased magnitude of event-related desynchronization (ERD) during a finger-tapping task, with a large between-group effect. Because the neurobiology underlying several transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures have been studied in multiple contexts, we compared ERD and 3 TMS measures (resting motor threshold [RMT], short-interval cortical inhibition [SICI], and task-related up-modulation [TRUM]) within 14 participants with ADHD (ages 8–12 years) and 17 control children. The typically developing (TD) group showed a correlation between greater RMT and greater magnitude of alpha (10–13 Hz, here) ERD, and there was no diagnostic interaction effect, consistent with a rudimentary model of greater needed energy input to stimulate movement. Similarly, inhibition measured by SICI was also greater in the TD group when the magnitude of movement-related ERD was higher; there was a miniscule diagnostic interaction effect. Finally, TRUM during a response-inhibition task showed an unanticipated pattern: in TD children, the greater TMS task modulation (TRUM) was associated with a smaller magnitude of ERD during finger-tapping. The ADHD group showed the opposite direction of association: Greater TRUM was associated with larger magnitude of ERD. Prior EEG results have demonstrated specific alterations of task-related modulation of cortical physiology, and the current results provide a fulcrum for multimodal study.
Keywords: ADHD / event-related desynchronization / mirror overflow / response inhibition / TMS

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