Orbital Trauma: Orbital and Orbitofacial Fractures
Abstract: Imaging of the orbitofacial skeleton and soft tissues – including the globe, the face, and intracranial structures, is an essential component in the diagnosis, counseling, prognostication, management, and follow-up of patients afflicted by trauma to the craniofacial region, which has both medical and medicolegal consequences. We herewith provide an overview of the various imaging modalities (ultrasound, CT scan, Magnetic resonance imaging, angiography), and common radiologic features. A thorough knowledge is thus paramount to the practicing ophthalmologist managing these complex conditions. In general, Computed Tomography (CT scan) is the imaging modality of choice for orbital trauma and foreign bodies. However, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be considered in special circumstances as it may be more sensitive in the detection and assessment of nonmetallic/organic intra-orbital foreign bodies. Black bone MRI is increasingly being used nowadays or orbital imaging, especially in children, who need repeated imaging of the soft tissues and the bone.
Keywords: Orbital trauma / Orbital fractures / Blow-out fractures / Trapdoor fractures / Blow-in fractures / Orbital compartment syndrome / Open globe injuries / Closed globe injuries / Zygomatico-maxillary complex fractures / Naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures / Cranio-orbital fractures / Orbitofacial fractures / Panfacial fractures / Orbital foreign bodies / Cone beam CT (CBCT)
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