New Search

Export article
Open Access

Transmission of SARS-Cov-2 and other enveloped viruses to the environment through protective gear: a brief review

Francesco Petrosino, Debolina Mukherjee, Gerardo Coppola, Maria Teresa Gaudio, Stefano Curcio, Vincenza Calabro, Francesco Marra, Prosun Bhattacharya, Umapada Pal, Nabil Khélifi,
Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration , Volume 6, pp 1-13; doi:10.1007/s41207-021-00251-w

Abstract: Over the past two decades, several deadly viral epidemics have emerged, which have placed humanity in danger. Previous investigations have suggested that viral diseases can spread through contaminants or contaminated surfaces. The transmission of viruses via polluted surfaces relies upon their capacity to maintain their infectivity while they are in the environment. Here, a range of materials that are widely used to manufacture personal protective equipment (PPE) are summarized, as these offer effective disinfection solutions and are the environmental variables that influence virus survival. Infection modes and prevention as well as disinfection and PPE disposal strategies are discussed. A coronavirus-like enveloped virus can live in the environment after being discharged from a host organism until it infects another healthy individual. Transmission of enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 can occur even without direct contact, although detailed knowledge of airborne routes and other indirect transmission paths is still lacking. Ground transmission of viruses is also possible via wastewater discharges. While enveloped viruses can contaminate potable water and wastewater through human excretions such as feces and droplets, careless PPE disposal can also lead to their transmission into our environment. This paper also highlights the possibility that viruses can be transmitted into the environment from PPE kits used by healthcare and emergency service personnel. A simulation-based approach was developed to understand the transport mechanism for coronavirus and similar enveloped viruses in the environment through porous media, and preliminary results from this model are presented here. Those results indicate that viruses can move through porous soil and eventually contaminate groundwater. This paper therefore underlines the importance of proper PPE disposal by healthcare workers in the Mediterranean region and around the world.
Keywords: Virulence factor / Virus transmission / Enveloped virus / Personal protective equipment (PPE)

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

Share this article

Click here to see the statistics on "Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration" .
References (32)
    Back to Top Top