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Risk Factors for Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injury in Surgical Critical Care Patients

PhD Jenny Alderden , PhD Linda J. Cowan, Bsn Jonathan B. Dimas, Mstat Danli Chen, Yue Zhang, PhD Mollie Cummins, PhD Tracey L. Yap
Published: 1 November 2020
American Journal of Critical Care , Volume 29; doi:10.4037/ajcc2020810

Abstract: Background Hospital-acquired pressure injuries disproportionately affect critical care patients. Although risk factors such as moisture, illness severity, and inadequate perfusion have been recognized, nursing skin assessment data remain unexamined in relation to the risk for hospital-acquired pressure injuries. Objective To identify factors associated with hospital-acquired pressure injuries among surgical critical care patients. The specific aim was to analyze data obtained from routine nursing skin assessments alongside other potential risk factors identified in the literature. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 5101 surgical critical care patients at a level I trauma center and academic medical center. Multivariate logistic regression using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method identified important predictors with parsimonious representation. Use of specialty pressure redistribution beds was included in the model as a known predictive factor because specialty beds are a common preventive intervention. Results Independent risk factors identified by logistic regression were skin irritation (rash or diffuse, nonlocalized redness) (odds ratio, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.404-2.274; P < .001), minimum Braden Scale score (odds ratio, 0.858; 95% CI, 0.818-0.899; P < .001), and duration of intensive care unit stay before the hospital-acquired pressure injury developed (odds ratio, 1.003; 95% CI, 1.003-1.004; P < .001). Conclusions The strongest predictor was irritated skin, a potentially modifiable risk factor. Irritated skin should be treated and closely monitored, and the cause should be eliminated to allow the skin to heal.
Keywords: model / care / Hospital Acquired Pressure / Irritated / Risk Factors Identified / Acquired Pressure Injuries

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