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Vitamin D – contrary to vitamin K – does not associate with clinical outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients

, Anton S.M. Dofferhoff, Jody M.W. Van Den Ouweland, Henny Van Daal, Rob Janssen
Published: 9 November 2020
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 causes remarkably variable disease from asymptomatic individuals to respiratory insufficiency and coagulopathy. Vitamin K deficiency was recently found to associate with clinical outcome in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D has been hypothesized to reduce disease susceptibility by modulating inflammation, yet little is known about its role in disease severity. Considering the critical interaction between vitamin K and vitamin D in calcium and elastic fiber metabolism, we determined vitamin D status in the same cohort of 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients by measuring blood 25(OH)D levels. We found no difference in vitamin D status between those with good and poor outcome (defined as intubation and/or death). Instead, we found vitamin D sufficient persons (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) had accelerated elastic fiber degradation compared to those with mild deficiency (25(OH)D 25-50 nmol/L). Based on these findings, we hypothesize that vitamin D might have both favorable anti-inflammatory and unfavorable pro-calcification effects during COVID-19 and that vitamin K might compensate for the latter.
Keywords: fiber / vitamin K / deficiency / Status / clinical outcome / hospitalized / Nmol/l / COVID

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