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Environmental Conditions and COVID-19 Incident

Yura Witsqa Firmansyah, Mirza Fathan Fuadi, Farida Sugiester S, Wahyu Widyantoro, Muhammad Fadli Ramadhansyah

Abstract: COVID-19 merupakan penyakit menular baru yang disebabkan oleh virus SARS-CoV-2. Ditetapkan sebagai pandemi pada 12 Maret 2020 karena memiliki sebaran kasus yang tinggi dan cepat dibeberapa negara. Pada 1 Februari 2021 total kasus COVID-19 mencapai 103 juta di dunia, sedangkan di indonesia mencaoai 1,09 juta. Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi terhadap penularan dan kematian COVID-19, seperti kondisi lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran kondisi lingkungan yang dapat menjadi faktor penularan dan kematian akibat COVID-19. Metode dalam penelitian ini adalah literature review, merupakan kajian pustaka dengan kajian data sekunder diperoleh melalui jurnal penelitian yang kemudihan disintesis sehingga didapatkan 23 jurnal sebagai acuan penyusunan kajian pustaka. Hasil kajian pustaka, COVID-19 dan degradasi lingkungan memiliki penurunan pencemaran udara, air, kebisingan, dan pencemaran laut akibat lockdown. Namun, terjadi peningkatan volumen limbah B3 dari pasien COVID-19. Kemudihan COVID-19 dan pencemaran udara didapatkan hasil, karbon monoksida (CO), NO2, dan materi partikulat berdiameter kecil atau sama dengan 10 ?m' (PM10) mengalami penurunan signifikan selama lockdown global. Sedangkan untuk COVID-19 dan Klimatologi-Meteorologi didapatkan hasil, Setiap kenaikan suhu 1oC dari suhu rata-rata dapat menurunkan kasus harian COVID-19 sebesar 36% dan 57% ketika rata-rata kelembaban pada 67% dan 85,5% (%). Demikian juga kelembaban, setiap kenaikan 1oC relatif menurunkan kasus harian COVID-19 sebesar 11% hingga 22% dengan rentang suhu 5,04oC hingga 8,2oC. Simpulan penelitian ini adalah, kondisi lingkungan pada saat pandemi COVID-19 memiliki polemik tersendiri. Kerusakan lingkungan seperti pencemaran udara, laut mulai berkurang dengan adanya kebijakan lockdown sebagai upaya pencegahan dan pengendalian COVID-19. Namun beberapa polutan seperti PM2,5 , PM10, CO, NO2 dan O3 memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan transmisi COVID-19. Selain itu, faktor klimatologi dan meteorologi seperti suhu dan kelembaban memiliki nilai asosiasi yang kuat terhadap kasus harian COVID-19COVID-19 is a new infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was designated a pandemic on March 12, 2020, because it has spread cases in several countries. On February 1, 2021, the total number of COVID-19 cases reached 103 million in the world, and in Indonesia it reached 1.09 million. Many factors influence the transmission and death of COVID-19, for example environmental conditions. This study aims to provide an overview of environmental conditions that can be a factor for transmission and death due to COVID-19. The method in this research is literature review, which is a literature review with secondary data obtained through research journals which are then synthesized and obtained 23 articles as a reference for preparing literature reviews. COVID-19 and environmental degradation have decreased air, water, noise and marine pollution due to the lockdown, but there has been an increase in the volume of hazardous and toxic waste from COVID-19 patients. Then from air pollution, the results of decreases in CO, NO2, and PM10 during lockdown. Meanwhile, for climatology and meteorology, the result is that every 1oC increase in temperature from the average temperature can reduce daily cases of COVID-19 by 36% and 57% when the average humidity is at 67% and 85.5%. Likewis,e humidity each 1oC increase relatively reduces daily cases of COVID-19 by 11% to 22% with a temperature range of 5.04oC to 8.2oC. The conclusion of this research is that the environmental conditions at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic had their own polemic. However, several pollutants such as PM2,5, PM10, CO, NO2 and O3 have a significant relationship with the transmission of COVID-19. This literature review can provide recommendations regarding a holistic model policy for governments globally in efforts to prevent and control environmental pollution, and recycle medical waste.COVID-19 is a new infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was designated as a pandemic since March 12, 2020, because there are a lot of case in several countries. On February 1, 2021, the total number of COVID-19 cases reached 103 million in the world, and in Indonesia it reached 1.09 million. Many factors influence the transmission and death of COVID-19, for example environmental conditions. This study aims to provide an overview of environmental conditions that can be a factor for transmission and death due to COVID-19. The method in this research is literature review, which is a literature review with secondary data obtained through research journals which are then synthesized and obtained 23 articles as a reference for preparing literature reviews. COVID-19 and environmental degradation have decreased air, water, noise and marine pollution due to the lockdown, but there has been an increase in the volume of hazardous and toxic waste from COVID-19 patients. Then from air pollution, the results of decreases in CO, NO2, and PM10 during lockdown. Meanwhile, for climatology and meteorology, the result is that every 1oC increase in temperature from the average temperature can reduce daily cases of COVID-19 by 36% and 57% when the average humidity is at 67% and 85.5%. Likewis,e humidity each 1oC increase relatively reduces daily cases of COVID-19 by 11% to 22% with a temperature range of 5.04oC to 8.2oC. The conclusion of this research is that the environmental conditions during a pandemic had their own polemic. However, several pollutants such as CO, NO2, O3, PM2,5, and PM10 is closely related to the spread of COVID-19. This literature review can provide recommendations for an overall global government demonstration policy in the prevention and control of environmental pollution and recycling of medical waste.
Keywords: virus / meteorology / Indonesia / toxic waste / February / COVID / SARS CoV / lockdown / 1oC

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