Rehmapicroside ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via attenuating peroxynitrite-mediated mitophagy activation
Free Radical Biology and Medicine , Volume 160, pp 526-539; doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.06.034
Abstract: Peroxynitrite (ONOO-)-mediated mitophagy activation represents a vital pathogenic mechanism in ischemic stroke. Our previous study suggests that ONOO- mediates Drp1 recruitment to the damaged mitochondria for excessive mitophagy, aggravating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and the ONOO--mediated mitophagy activation could be a crucial therapeutic target for improving outcome of ischemic stroke. In the present study, we tested the neuroprotective effects of rehmapicroside, a natural compound from a medicinal plant, on inhibiting ONOO--mediated mitophagy activation, attenuating infarct size and improving neurological functions by using the in vitro cultured PC12 cells exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation with reoxygenation (OGD/RO) condition and the in vivo rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 hours of transient cerebral ischemia plus 22 hours of reperfusion. The major discoveries include following aspects: (1) Rehmapicroside reacted with ONOO- directly to scavenge ONOO-; (2) Rehmapicroside decreased O2- and ONOO-, up-regulated Bcl-2 but down-regulated Bax, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3, and down-regulated PINK1, Parkin, p62 and the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in the OGD/RO-treated PC12 cells; (3) Rehmapicroside suppressed 3-nitrotyrosine formation, Drp1 nitration as well as NADPH oxidases and iNOS expression in the ischemia-reperfused rat brains; (4) Rehmapicroside prevented the translocations of PINK1, Parkin and Drp1 into the mitochondria for mitophagy activation in the ischemia-reperfused rat brains; (5) Rehmapicroside ameliorated infarct sizes and improved neurological deficit scores in the rats with transient MCAO cerebral ischemia. Taken together, rehmapicroside could be a potential drug candidate against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and its neuroprotective mechanisms could be attributed to inhibiting the ONOO--mediated mitophagy activation.
Keywords: ISCHEMIC stroke / mitophagy / peroxynitrite / drp1 / Rehmapicroside
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