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Non-Communicable Diseases in Afghanistan and Ghana

Ahmad Khan, Melanie M. Tidman

Abstract: Non-communicable diseases are a challenge to public health worldwide. Decades ago, the consensus was that non-communicable diseases were the problem of developed and wealthy nations. However, recent studies indicate that developing countries are on the edge of emerging increases in non-communicable diseases due to various factors such as the consumption of unhealthy food, lack of physical activities, poor access to primary healthcare services, and loosened policies on tobacco use. Non-communicable diseases cause increased mortality and have significant financial impact due to treatment costs. The conditions also decrease the capacity and productivity of the human workforce in the community who cannot adequately contribute when under treatment in the late stages of the disease. Multiple societal and economic factors contribute to poor outcomes from non-communicable diseases including increasing globalization and urbanization. The two countries reviewed, Afghanistan and Ghana, have worsened population health due to aforementioned factors. In low and middle-income countries such as Afghanistan and Ghana, the unparalleled progression of globalization and urbanization and lifestyle factors have contributed to fast track the prevalence and progression of non-communicable diseases. This literature review aims to overview the impact of non-communicable diseases in Afghanistan and Ghana and suggest potential strategies to improve overall population health outcomes.
Keywords: treatment / communicable diseases in Afghanistan / health / Afghanistan and Ghana / physical activities

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