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Neuroradiology in Transgender Care: Facial Feminization, Laryngeal Surgery, and Beyond

, , Jorys Martinez-Jorge, , Daniel F. Broderick,

Abstract: Transgender individuals experience incongruence between their gender identity and the sex assigned to them at birth. This incongruence can cause many transgender individuals to experience distressing physical and mental discord, a diagnosis known as gender dysphoria. Craniofacial structures have distinct anthropometric characteristics that affect perceived masculinity and femininity. The face, neck, and voice are highly exposed anatomic areas that have recognizable gender-specific characteristics that may hinder a transgender individual's successful social integration and public acceptance. Reconstructive facial and laryngeal procedures are among the surgical options transgender persons may elect to undergo to better align their physical appearance with their gender identity. These include feminization surgeries such as facial feminization and reduction chondrolaryngoplasty, as well as masculinizing facial and laryngeal surgeries. Maxillofacial CT is frequently used in the preoperative evaluation of patients before facial feminization surgery (FFS). Several CT measurements guide surgeons to the optimal correction required in FFS to achieve appropriate aesthetic planes. Mapping important craniofacial landmarks to avoid untoward surgical complications is crucial. Transgender patients may encounter other neurologic complications that require neuroimaging evaluation. For example, gender-affirming hormone therapy (eg, estrogen and testosterone) may increase the risk of stroke or may influence growth of various hormone-sensitive tumors such as pituitary adenomas. Radiologists may interpret imaging examinations in transgender patients for routine care or for evaluation before and after facial and laryngeal surgeries and must be aware of the role of neuroimaging in the care of this population. An invited commentary by Callen is available online.The online slide presentation from the RSNA Annual Meeting is available for this article.©RSNA, 2022 Download as PowerPoint
Keywords: transgender / laryngeal surgeries / care / gender identity / craniofacial / optimal / structures

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