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Fabrication of Silicon/Carbon Composite Material with Silicon Waste and Carbon Nanofiber Applied in Lithium-Ion Battery

Ying-Yang Li, Che-Ya Wu, Tzu-Ying Lin, Jenq-Gong Duh

Abstract: Silicon (Si) is regarded as a promising material for lithium-ion battery anode because of high theoretical capacity. Nevertheless, Si faces particle pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to serious volume change during the lithiation and the delithiation process. In this work, a silicon/carbon composite constituted to Si powder and carbon nanofiber (CNF) is produced to solve the above issues as a new design structure of anode material. The Si powder was recycled from the silicon slicing waste in photovoltaic industry and the CNF was from dry rice straws. By mixing the purified Si powder with CNF, the composite was synthesized by the freeze-drying method and calcination. In the cyclic test, Si adding with 1 wt% CNF showed 3091 mAh/g capacity in the first cycle and 1079 mAh/g capacity after 100 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A/g, which were both better than pristine Si. SEM images also show the composite structure can eliminate cracks on the surface of the electrode during cycling. CNF attaching on Si particles can increase specific surface area, so binder can easily combine the active materials and the conductive materials together. This strategy enhances the structure stability and prevents the electrode from delamination.
Keywords: Composite Material / Carbon Nanofiber / Waste Silicon / Anode Material / Lithium-Ion Battery

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