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Street Dust Heavy Metal Pollution Source Apportionment and Sustainable Management in A Typical City—Shijiazhuang, China

Kui Cai, Chang Li

Abstract: Street dust is repeatedly raised by the wind as a secondary suspension, helping heavy metals therein to enter the human body through the respiratory system, harming human health. A detailed investigation was conducted to determine levels and sources of Cd (cadmium), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Pb (lead), Zn (zinc), Ni (nick), and Hg (mercury) contamination in street dust from Shijiazhuang, China. The average concentrations of these metals were: Cd, 1.86 mg·kg−1; Cr, 131.7 mg·kg−1; Ni, 40.99 mg·kg−1; Cu, 91.06 mg·kg−1; Pb, 154.78 mg·kg−1, Hg, 0.29 mg·kg−1; and Zn, 496.17 mg·kg−1—all of which were greater than the local soil reference values. The concentrations of the heavy metals were mapped for the three Shijiazhuang ring roads, with the results showing significant differences between each ring. Application of enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indexes showed that there was significant enrichment and accumulation of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg levels were mainly controlled by human activities, while Cr, Ni, and Cu levels were associated with natural sources. Absolute principal component scores with multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were applied to facilitate source apportionment. The results showed that the mixed (traffic and industry) group contributed 53.55%, 59.7%, and 62.25% of the Cd, Pb, and Zn concentration, respectively, while the natural sources group contributed 58.01%, 65.09%, and 66.91% of the Cu, Ni, and Cr concentration, respectively. The burning coal group was found to be responsible for 63.38% of the Hg present in the samples. These results provide a useful theoretical basis for Shijiazhuang authorities to address heavy metal pollution management.
Keywords: Heavy metals / management / source / Shijiazhuang / Street Dust / Apcs-mlr

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