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Environmental Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer in an African Setting about 193 Cases at the CHU Point G in Bamako/Mali

Souleymane Sanogo, Drissa Traoré, Mamadou Coulibaly, Birama Togola, Bréhima Bengaly, Ousmane Ibréhima Touré, Drissa Ouattara, Bréhima Coulibaly, Babou Ba, Siaka Diallo, Nouhoum Ongoiba
Published: 1 January 2021
Surgical Science , Volume 12, pp 23-30; doi:10.4236/ss.2021.122004

Abstract: CHU (University Hospital Center) Point G: The department of surgery B is a surgical department of CHU Point G. The department is par excellence a reference department for cases of visceral surgery, cancer surgery, cardiovascular surgery, plastic and endocrinology surgery. As a reminder, the CHU Point G is the largest 3rd level referral hospital in Mali. Aim: To study the environmental risk factors of stomach cancer in the B surgery department of the Point G University Hospital in Bamako. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study with retrospective collection from January 2008 to June 2018 (126 months). Results: We have identified 380 cases of digestive cancer, including 193 cases of stomach cancer or 50.79% of digestive cancers. The mean age of the patients was 57.21 ± 13 years. Male sex represented 55% (n = 106). Eating habits were dominated by the consumption of tô with potash (cereal paste) with 64.76% (n = 185). The main methods of preserving meat and fish were curing and smoking with 57.51% (n = 111). Chronic smoking was found in 24.35% (n = 47), alcohol + tobacco consumption in 2.59% (n = 5). The low socio-economic class represented 126 cases or 65.38%. Housewives and cultivators were respectively 37.82% (n = 73) and 227.97% (n = 54). 20.20% (n = 39) had a history of epigastric pain. Epigastralgia was the most common functional sign with 84.5% of cases (n = 169). An epigastric mass was found in 72 patients or 37.3%. Adenocarcinoma represented 97.4% (n = 188). Palliative surgery concerned the majority of our patients with 64.8% of patients (n = 79). The postoperative consequences were simple in 28.57% of cases (n = 28), the postoperative morbidity and mortality were respectively 33.61% (n = 41), and 23.77% (n = 29). The overall survival rate after surgery was 10.81% at 2 years and 2.94% at 5 years. This rate was 58.83% at 2 years and 28.50% at 5 years after curative surgery. Conclusion: The risk factors for stomach cancer are many and varied. Some are particularly present in Africa. Delay in diagnosis due to a belief in traditional healers is common in our community.
Keywords: CHU Point G / Stomach Cancer / Environmental Risk Factors / African Setting

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