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Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Risk of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Taiwan: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

Abstract: Epidemiological studies have shown that maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with increased risk of perinatal outcomes. However, the evidence of such associations in Asian populations is limited. We conducted a secondary data analysis to investigate the relationships of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with the risks of adverse perinatal outcomes, including gestational diabetes (GDM), gestational hypertension (GHTN), preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), and macrosomia. We categorized prepregnancy BMI by the WHO classification and GWG by the Institute of Medicine guidelines. We performed adjusted logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios of adverse perinatal outcomes. A total of 19,052 women were included; prepregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with a greater risk of GDM, GHTN, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and macrosomia. Women with excessive GWG had a greater risk of GHTN, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and macrosomia. In conclusion, regardless of the range of GWG during pregnancy, maternal prepregnancy BMI is significantly associated with the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in Taiwan. Public health attention regarding obesity reduction before conception and prenatal counseling for optimal GWG is needed to mitigate the risk of poor perinatal outcomes.
Keywords: obesity / gestational weight gain / preterm birth / birth cohort / Perinatal Complications

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