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Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine efficacy

, Chizoba Wonodi
Published: 1 January 2021
The Lancet , Volume 397, pp 72-74; doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)32623-4

Abstract: 2020 has been a difficult year for all, but has seen 58 vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) be developed and in clinical trials,1Zimmer C Corum J Wee S Coronavirus vaccine tracker.New York Times. 2020; https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.htmlDate accessed: December 6, 2020Google Scholar with some vaccines reportedly having more than 90% efficacy against COVID-19 in clinical trials. This remarkable achievement is much-needed good news as COVID-19 cases are currently at their highest daily levels globally.2Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins UniversityCOVID-19 dashboard. Johns Hopkins University of Medicine coronavirus resource center.https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.htmlDate accessed: December 1, 2020Google Scholar New vaccine efficacy results are reported now in The Lancet: investigators of four randomised, controlled trials conducted in the UK, South Africa, and Brazil report pooled results of an interim analysis of safety and efficacy against COVID-19 of the Oxford–AstraZeneca chimpanzee adenovirus vectored vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) in adults aged 18 years and older.3Voysey M Clemens SAC Madhi SA et al.Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK.Lancet. 2020; (published online Dec 8.)https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1Google Scholar This is the first report of efficacy against COVID-19 for a non-profit vaccine aiming for global supply, equity, and commitment to low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs),4Gavithe Vaccine AllianceNew collaboration makes further 100 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine available to low- and middle-income countries.https://www.gavi.org/news/media-room/new-collaboration-makes-further-100-million-doses-covid-19-vaccine-available-lowDate: Sept 29, 2020Date accessed: December 3, 2020Google Scholar, 5Amnesty InternationalCOVID-19: Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine a boost for global access, but huge inequality remains.https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/11/oxford-astrazeneca-vaccine-a-boost-for-global-access-but-huge-inequality-remainsDate: Nov 23, 2020Date accessed: December 3, 2020Google Scholar and as such its publication is very welcomed. After phase 1 results supported a two-dose regimen, the trial protocols were amended where necessary to require two standard doses (SD/SD cohort) of approximately 5 × 1010 viral particles per dose administered 28 days apart, but a subset (LD/SD cohort) in one of the UK trials inadvertently received a half-dose of the vaccine (low dose) as the first dose before a change in dosage quantification methodology; additionally, the protocol amendments enabled other trial participants originally scheduled to receive a single dose to receive a booster more than 28 days after their first dose. Participants randomly received either the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or control, which was either meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) or saline depending on the trial.
Keywords: vaccine / Africa / Efficacy / https / Oxford / Sars Cov / Astrazeneca / ChAdOx1 nCoV

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