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Oral mucosa and Streptococcus mutans count in the saliva. Does graphene oxide nanoparticle mouthwash have a good effect?

Fatemeh Eshaghi Gorji, Maryam Seyedmajidi, Fariba Asgharpour, Hamed Tashakorian, Ali-Akbar Moghadamnia, Sohrab Kazemi, Homayoon Alaghehmand
Published: 1 April 2021
 by 10.22088

Abstract: This study aimed to assess the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles mouthwash on oral mucosa, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) count in the saliva of rats, and human enamel surface microhardness, in comparison with fluoride mouthwash. This study was conducted in two phases namely an animal study, and an in vitro experimental study. GO mouthwash (0.005%), sodium fluoride (NaF) mouthwash (0.05%), and a combination of both (0.05% NaF-0.005% GO) were prepared. The oral cavity of 36 rats was inoculated with S. mutans, and they were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the type of mouthwash. The control group received saline mouthwash. Fourteen days after using the mouthwashes, all rats were sacrificed, and the salivary S. mutans count was measured. The buccal and tongue mucosa were also histologically examined for the type and severity of inflammation, number of blood vessels, epithelial thickness, and epithelial keratinization. For microhardness testing, 40 sound extracted human premolars were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10) of culture medium with S. mutans and different mouthwashes. The enamel microhardness was measured at 7 and 14 days, and compared with the baseline value. The mean S. mutans count in the saliva of rats in GO and NaF-GO groups was significantly lower than that in other groups (p<0.001). Enamel microhardness in NaF and NaF-GO groups significantly increased at 7 and 14 days, compared with baseline. Addition of GO nanoparticles improved the antibacterial properties without causing adverse mucosal effects such as ulceration, acute inflammation or atrophy of the epithelium of the oral mucosa, but had no effect on surface hardness of the enamel.
Keywords: Nanoparticles / Streptococcus mutans / Sodium fluoride

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