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A Test of the Congruence Hypothesis in the Think Manager—Think Male Research Paradigm

Matthew W. Lauritsen

Abstract: Researchers who design studies based on Schein’s (1973, 1975) think manager-think male (TMTM) research paradigm ubiquitously conclude that the greater incongruence between beliefs about managers and women, compared to managers and men, is problematic for women in leadership roles. However, this hypothesis is never directly tested. Using polynomial regression analysis, the congruence hypothesis was tested via the evaluations of the respondents’ current supervisors as criteria. The hypothesized congruence effect was not found. In other words, there was no observed relationship between the congruence of people’s beliefs about men, women, and leaders, and their subsequent evaluations of women leaders. The results of this study raise concerns about the validity of the conclusions of TMTM studies.
Keywords: leaders / Male / Research Paradigm / incongruence / words / directly / polynomial / ubiquitously

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