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Gain-of-function mutation in the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNQ1 and glucose-stimulated hypoinsulinemia - case report

Jinyi Zhang, Christian R. Juhl, Louise Hylten-Cavallius, Morten Salling-Olsen, Allan Linneberg, Jens Juul Holst, Torben Hansen, Sciprofile linkJørgen K. Kanters, Sciprofile linkSigne S. Torekov
BMC Endocrine Disorders , Volume 20, pp 1-5; doi:10.1186/s12902-020-0513-x

Abstract: The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.1 encoded by KCNQ1 is located in both cardiac myocytes and insulin producing beta cells. Loss-of-function mutations in KCNQ1 causes long QT syndrome along with glucose-stimulated hyperinsulinemia, increased C-peptide and postprandial hypoglycemia. The KCNE1 protein modulates Kv7.1 in cardiac myocytes, but is not expressed in beta cells. Gain-of-function mutations in KCNQ1 and KCNE1 shorten the action potential duration in cardiac myocytes, but their effect on beta cells and insulin secretion is unknown. Two patients with atrial fibrillation due to gain-of-function mutations in KCNQ1 (R670K) and KCNE1 (G60D) were BMI-, age-, and sex-matched to six control participants and underwent a 6-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During the OGTT, the KCNQ1 gain-of-function mutation carrier had 86% lower C-peptide response after glucose stimulation compared with matched control participants (iAUC360min = 34 pmol/l*min VS iAUC360min = 246 ± 71 pmol/l*min). The KCNE1 gain-of-function mutation carrier had normal C-peptide levels. This case story presents a patient with a gain-of-function mutation KCNQ1 R670K with low glucose-stimulated C-peptide secretion, additionally suggesting involvement of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 in glucose-stimulated insulin regulation.
Keywords: Glucose metabolism / Gain-of-function / Voltage-gated-potassium channels

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