Rice and Climaate Change:Implication for Food Security in Nigeria:A Review
Abstract: Climate change is already seen to be impacting on every aspect of life on earth especially in the agricultural sectors of developing nations. In Nigeria, and indeed the world over, seasons are shifting, temperatures are rising, landscapes are changing and sea levels are rising. Extreme event like drought and flood are becoming more frequent and pronounced. FAO in2009 further highlighted that Agriculture is expected to pay a significant cost of the damage caused by climate change. Nigeria as one of the African countries is highly vulnerable to the influence of climate change (IPCC, 2007), as this is already being experienced, in form of extreme events such as flooding, droughts in some Northern States, heat/cold waves, changes in weather patterns which have posed serious challenges to the sustainability of rice production.This will have implication for rice farming especially in Nigeria, where rain-fed agriculture is predominant, the onset and cessation of the rains ascertain the cultural practices of farmers, such as land preparation, crop variety selection and planting to harvesting (Odekunle, 2004; Umar, 2010). The implication of this will be interference with food security as rice is an essential food crop in Nigeria that is consumed by a large number of the population.The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 2018, has warned that hunger in Africa is being made worse by the impacts of climate change as itthreatens the capacity of vulnerable countries to guarantee food security, poverty elimination and actualize sustainable development. The increasing rate of food insecurity in the world leading to different form of malnutrition is worrisome and more needs to be done in the areas of agriculture in order to ensure food security and improve on nutrition if a world without hunger is to be achieved by 2030.
Keywords: Food security / climate change / development / Rice / Africa / Nigeria / Extreme / droughts / Impacting
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