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Simple Rational Model for Discharge of Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes, Based on Nernst Equation

Panagis G. Papadopoulos, Christopher G. Koutitas, Christos G. Karayannis, Panos D. Kiousis, Yannis N. Dimitropoulos
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry , Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/ojpc.2021.111001

Abstract: A simple rational model is proposed for discharge of batteries with aqueous electrolytes, based on Nernst equation. Details of electrode kinetics are not taken into account. Only a few overall parameters of the battery are considered. A simple algorithm, with variable time step-length Δt, is presented, for proposed model. The model is first applied to Daniel cell, in order to clarify concepts and principles of battery operation. It is found that initial pinching, in time-history curve of voltage E-t, is due to initial under-concentration of product ion. Then, model is applied to a lead-acid battery. In absence of an ion product, and in order to construct nominator of Nernst ratio, such an ion, with coefficient tending to zero, is assumed, thus yielding unity in nominator. Time-history curves of voltage, for various values of internal resistance, are compared with corresponding published experimental curves. Temperature effect on voltage-time curve is examined. Proposed model can be extended to other types of batteries, which can be considered as having aqueous electrolytes, too.
Keywords: Discharge / battery / temperature effect / Lead-acid battery / aqueous electrolyte / Nernst equation / Daniel Cell

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