Enhanced Production of Salinity-Induced Proteases from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger
Advances in Enzyme Research , Volume 7, pp 45-56; doi:10.4236/aer.2019.74004
Abstract: Proteases are important industrial enzymes that account for about 60% of the total enzyme market globally due to their large application in food, feed, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The effect of salt stress on protease production was evaluated on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The enzyme production was enhanced by stepwise optimization of the culture parameters, notably, carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, and temperature of the submerged fermentation process while using a minimal salt media and casein as substrate for the protease activity. The fungi species were found to be good producers of both acid and alkaline proteases under 4% salt stress condition. The optimum culture conditions for alkaline protease production by Aspergillus flavus were sucrose 4%, peptone 1%, pH 8 at 40°C with maximum enzymatic activities of 8.85 mM/min/mg protein, 5.22 mM/min/mg protein, 3.75 mM/min/mg protein, and 1.64 mM/min/mg protein, respectively. Lactose 4%, peptone 1%, pH 6 at 50°C were the optimum culture conditions for acid protease production by Aspergillus flavus with maximum enzymatic activities of 4.59 mM/min/mg protein, 2.06 mM/min/mg protein, 1.24 mM/min/mg protein, and 1.23 mM/min/mg protein, respectively. For Aspergillus niger, the optimum culture conditions for alkaline protease production were corn starch 4%, yeast extract 1%, pH 6 at 40°C with maximum enzymatic activities of 5.99 mM/min/mg protein, 3.85 mM/min/mg protein, 6.18 mM/min/mg protein, and 3.72 mM/min/mg protein, respectively. While lactose 4%, yeast extract 1%, pH 6 at 50°C were the best culture conditions for acid protease production by Aspergillus niger with maximum enzymatic activities of 4.81 mM/min/mg protein, 0.93 mM/min/mg protein, 5.71 mM/min/mg protein, and 3.34 mM/min/mg protein, respectively.
Keywords: optimization / Enzymes / Fermentation / protease / Salt-stress
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