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Incidence of Multi-Drug Resistant among Diarrhoeagenic Children 0-60 Months with Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Organisms Isolated in Selected Hospitals of Bauchi State Metropolis

, A. F. Umar, E. Agbo, Omammegbe Abdulrahman

Abstract:Background: Salmonella non-typhoidal is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases with a significant increase in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics, causes severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality in the study area. To screen and isolate multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella from diarrhoeagenic children aged 0-60 months. Methodology: A total of 222 stool samples were collected from symptomatic diarrhoeagenic children between August-December, 2019 in selected hospitals in Bauchi state metropolis. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis and antibiotic resistance was determined by the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index.β-lactamase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 50 isolates of Salmonella obtained and 9 positive isolates of non-typhoidal was obtained respectively. Non-typhoidal Salmonella were discovered to be more prevalence among age between 48-60 months (37.50%), male children (62.50%), outpatients (62.50%) and more prevalence among patient attending Bauchi State Specialist Hospital (33.33%). Results: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility of the commonly used and prescribed antibiotics showed that, 87.5% of the non-typhoidal Salmonella were resistant to cloxacillin, followed by 75% to tetracycline and 75% to chloramphenicol. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of the non-typhoidal Salmonella in this study shows that 62.5% have MAR index of ≥ 0.5, this indicate a significant level of misuse of these antibiotics. The result revealed a positive correlation and the relationship was statistically significant (0.005) at 1% level of significant. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected tetA gene and tetB gene. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a relatively high level of gene mediated antibiotic resistance to tetracycline and other antibiotics. The high prevalence and increased resistance especially among non-typhoidal Salmonella is a cause of concern and reiterates the need for extensive routine checks along with stool samples for better management of gastroenteritis.
Keywords: children / MAR / antibiotic resistance / Salmonella / resistance especially among non typhoidal / stool samples

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