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Bacteriological Quality of Money from the Cash Registers of Banks and Markets in the Port Harcourt Metropolis and Bacterial Susceptibility to Antibiotics

, J. O. Williams, C. J. Ugboma

Abstract: Bacterial contamination of money acts as vehicle for the transmission of pathogenic and drug resistant organisms. This study was carried out to investigate the bacteriological quality and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of money bank cash-points and markets in Port Harcourt metropolis. Two hundred and eighty-eight (288) naira notes belonging to the following denominations, N5, N10, N20, N50, N100, N200, N500 and N1000 were collected for three months from banks and markets and subjected to standard microbiological procedures such as standard plate counts, identification, sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Total heterotrophic bacterial count (THB) ranged from 0.6±0.00x106 to 12.80±9.19x106cfu/g; 0.65±0.21x106 to 13.05±9.55x106cfu/g; 0.65±0.20x106 to 8.05±2.48x106Cfu/g in N5 and N100 from Access Bank (AB), United Bank of Africa (UBA) and Guaranty Trust Bank (GTB), respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the THB between the different naira notes. Total coliform count (TCC) ranged from 0.00 x104 to 56.90±28.43x104Cfu/g; 0.00 x104 to 61.90±35.49x104Cfu/g; 0.00x104 to 17.75±12.79x104Cfu/g in N5, and N100 for AB, UBA and GTB respectively. THB ranged from 2.69±1.55x106 to 9.95±3.22x106cfu/g; 3.00±1.69x106 to 12.30±9.89x106cfu/g; 3.30±1.82x106 to 17.30±6.97x106cfu/g in N1000, N10 and N100 naira for Mile 1, Mile 3 and Creek road markets respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the THB between the different naira notes sampled in both Banks and markets. TCC ranged from 0.77±0.28x104 to 45.59±10.18x104Cfu/g; 0.78±0.88x104 to 40.59±3.11x104Cfu/g; 1.45±0.07x104 to 55.60±10.18x104Cfu/g in N1000 and N100 Mile 1, Mile 3 and Creek road market respectively. Faecal coliform count ranged from 0.00x103 to 1.53±0.15x103Cfu/g for only mile 1 market. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total and faecal coliform counts between the different naira notes sampled in Banks and markets. The bacterial isolates identified were; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus and Serratia marcesens. Twenty-one (21) bacteria were isolated from Banks and Markets. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus leteus, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcesens were significantly high in N100 (41.67%) (66.67%), (100%), (100%) respectively. Staphylococcus spp was susceptible to Gentamicin (33.3%), Bacillus spp to Ofloxacin (100%), Micrococcus spp to Ofloxacin and Gentamicin (100%), Serratia spp and Escherichia coli were susceptible to Ofloxacin, Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin (100%) and they were all resistant to Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Cloxacillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime and Ceftriaxone (100%)> Erythromycin and Gentamicin (75%). Hundred-percent (100%) of the bacterial isolates had multidrug resistance index greater than 0.2. Public awareness on personal hygiene should be encouraged while drug abuse should be discouraged.
Keywords: N100 / Banks and Markets / Gentamicin / spp / Mile / bacterial / different naira

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