Identifying Factors that Affect the Probability of Being Cured from MDR-TB Disease, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A Competing Risks Analysis
Published: 1 January 2022
Abstract: Setting: Four decentralised sites are located in rural areas and one centralised hospital in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Objective: To analyse risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using competing risks analysis. Understanding factors associated with MDR-TB and obtaining valid parameter estimates could help in designing control and intervention strategies to lower TB mortality. Method: A prospective study was performed using a competing risk analysis in patients receiving treatment for MDR-TB. The study focused on 1542 patients (aged 18 years and older) who were diagnosed of MDR-TB between July 2008 and June 2010. Time to cure MDR-TB was used as the dependent variable and time to death was the competing risk event. Results: The Fine-Gray regression model indicated that baseline weight was highly significant with sub-distribution hazard ration (SHR) = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.02. This means that weight gain in a month increased chances of curing MDR-TB by 2%. Results show that lower chances to cure MDR-TB were among patients between 41 to 50 years compared to those patients who were between 18 to 30 years old (SHR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61 - 1.06). The chances of curing MDR-TB in female patients were low compared to male patients (SHR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.68 - 1.03), however this was not significant. Furthermore, HIV negative patients had higher chances to cure MDR-TB (SHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.85 - 1.35) compared to HIV positive patients. Patients who were treated in the decentralised sites had lower chances to be cured of MDR-TB (SHR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.54) as compared to patients who were treated in the centralised hospital. Conclusion: Identifying key factors associated with TB and specifying strategies to prevent them can reduce mortality of patients due to TB disease, hence positive treatment outcomes leading to the goal of reducing or end TB deaths. Urgent action is required to improve the coverage and quality of diagnosis, treatment and care for people with drug-resistant TB.
Keywords: Competing Risks / MDR-TB / South Africa
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