Diagnostic accuracy of Vibrational spectroscopy in the diagnosis of oral potentially malignant and malignant disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Abstract: Oral malignant and potentially malignant conditions affect several people worldwide each year. The early diagnoses of these conditions play an important role in prevention and recovery. Vibrational spectroscopy techniques such as Raman spectroscopy (RS) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are used in the early, non-invasive, label-free diagnosis of malignant and pre-malignant conditions, and are areas of active research. However, there is no conclusive evidence suggesting the translatability of these methods into clinical practice. This systematic review and meta-analysis presents pooled evidence for RS and FTIR methods in the detection of malignant and potentially malignant conditions of the oral cavity. Electronic databases were searched for published literature on RS and FTIR in the diagnosis of oral malignant and potentially malignant conditions. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), pre-test, and post-test probability were then calculated using the random-effects model. A subgroup analysis was conducted separately for RS and FTIR methods. A total of 12 studies were included (8 of RS; 4 of FTIR) as per the eligibility criteria. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the vibrational spectroscopy methods were calculated to be 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 1.00) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.98), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) for the summary receiving operator characteristic curve was found to be 0.99 (0.98–1.00). Therefore, the results obtained in this study suggest that the RS and FTIR methods offer great potential to be used in the early diagnosis of oral malignant and pre-malignant conditions.
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy / potentially malignant / malignant conditions / Vibrational / diagnosis / diagnostic accuracy / systematic review / review and meta
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