Physico-Chemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Some Flours Types as Gluten-Free Ingredients Compared to Wheat Flour
Published: 26 December 2021
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430238
Abstract: Preparation of gluten-free products is a big challenge to the manufacturers with the main challenge of finding suitable alter-natives for gluten. Gluten-free products commercially available are poor sources of protein, fiber, minerals, and calories in the diet and poor sensory properties. Also, that GF products are not widely available and are both poor in quality and more expensive than gluten-containing products. The objective of this work was to investigate the chemical composition, functional properties, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound of some flours types as GF ingredients and compared to wheat flour containing gluten as a control. Among the GF ingredients used pseudocereals (quinoa and buckwheat), millet, rice, chickpea flours. The chemical composition of GF flours ranged between 10.34 – 11.71% moisture, 7.28 – 22.52% crude protein, 2.03 – 6.09% crude fat, 0.45 –2.37% ash, 0.34 – 5.56% crude fiber, 61.89 – 88.91% starch, 66.82 – 89.90% Carbohydrates and 385.13 – 406.99 Kcal /100g on dry weight basis. While, wheat flour (extraction 72%) contained 11.30% moisture, 12.26% crude protein, 2.46% crude fat, 0.59% ash, 0.61% crude fiber, 82.57% starch, 84.08% carbohydrates and 407.50 Kcal /100g on dry weight basis. The total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity were (279.89, 517.92, 163.99, 50.67 and 232.19 mg/100g on dry weight basis) and (16.92, 43.83, 4.27, 2.75 and 8.20%) for quinoa, buckwheat, millet, rice, chickpea flours, respectively. Whereas, the total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity for wheat flour was (147.56 mg/100g) and (4.26 %) on dry weight basis, respectively. On other hand, the results of water and oil holding capacity indicated that quinoa, buckwheat flours gave higher values than that observed for wheat flour. Also, it was found that quinoa, buckwheat, millet, rice, chickpea flours were higher soluble protein than the wheat flour. In addition, buckwheat, millet, rice, chickpea flours showed markedly higher foaming stability than of wheat flour.
Keywords: protein / wheat flour / antioxidant / gluten / crude / poor / Flours Types / Ingredients Compared
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