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A prognostic NAD+ metabolism-related gene signature for predicting response to immune checkpoint inhibitor in glioma

Cheng Jiang, Yujie Zhou, Lizhao Yan, Jianglin Zheng, Xuan Wang, Junjun Li, Xiaobing Jiang
Published: 8 February 2023

Abstract: Background: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) metabolism is involved in a series of cancer pathogenesis processes, and is considered a promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, a comprehensive analysis of NAD+ metabolism events on immune regulation and cancer survival has not yet been conducted. Here, we constructed a prognostic NAD+ metabolism-related gene signature (NMRGS) associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) efficacy in glioma.Methods: 40 NAD+ metabolism-related genes (NMRGs) were obtained from the Reactome database and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Glioma cases with transcriptome data and clinical information were obtained from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). NMRGS was constructed based on the calculated risk score using univariate analysis, Kaplan–Meier analysis, multivariate Cox regression, and nomogram. This NMRGS was verified in training (CGGA693) and validation (TCGA and CGGA325) cohorts. The immune characteristics, mutation profile, and response to ICI therapy were subsequently analyzed for different NMRGS subgroups.Results: Six NAD+ metabolism-related genes, including CD38, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK), nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 3 (NMNAT3), poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase family member 6 (PARP6), and poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase family member 9 (PARP9), were ultimately used to construct a comprehensive risk model for glioma patients. Patients in the NMRGS-high group showed a poorer survival outcome than those in the NMRGS-low group. The area under curve (AUC) indicated that NMRGS has good potential in glioma prognostic prediction. A nomogram with improved accuracy was established based on independent prognostic factors (NMRGS score, 1p19q codeletion status, and WHO grade). Furthermore, patients in the NMRGS-high group showed a more immunosuppressive microenvironment, higher tumor mutation burden (TMB), higher human leucocyte antigen (HLA) expression and a more therapeutic response to ICI therapy.Conclusions: This study constructed a prognostic NAD+ metabolism-related signature associated with the immune landscape in glioma, which can be used for guiding individualized ICI therapy.
Keywords: Glioma / NAD+ metabolism / prognosis / Immune checkpoint inhibitor / Signature

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