The impact of occlusion therapy and predictors on amblyopia dose–response relationship
Abstract: This study aimed to calculate the dose–response relationship and predictors of visual acuity (VA) improvement following occlusion therapy at the IWK Health Center Eye Clinic and to add to amblyopia therapy dose–response relationship literature. A retrospective chart review was performed, considering patients who reached an occlusion therapy outcome at the IWK Eye Clinic between 2012 and 2019. The treatment outcome was defined as equal VA or stable VA for three consecutive clinical visits despite reported compliance. Subjective patching hours from parental reports, not prescribed hours, were used for statistical analyses. One hundred and thirty-four patients (66 females and 68 males) ages 2–11 years were included. Results showed a dose–response relationship of 224 hours/0.1logMAR increase in VA and total dose of 1344 hours for full-time occlusion and 504 hours for part-time occlusion was required to reach outcome VA. The fastest VA improvement occurred with younger age at treatment initiation, during the first 4 weeks of treatment, and in patients with strabismic and/or severe amblyopia. Classification of amblyopia, age, VA chart, initial distance VA (amblyopic eye), and treatment dose predicted the hour dose–response relationship. Dose–response relationship was faster in younger participants, in participants with strabismic and severe amblyopia, and during the first month of occlusion. Additionally, by creating a GLM model of dose–response relationship, relationship calculations can be performed. Therefore, an estimated timeline can be developed to allow allocation of clinical resources and to prepare patients for the treatment duration required and possibly increase treatment compliance.
Keywords: Amblyopia / dose–response relationship / occlusion therapy
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