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Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: still discovered on anatomopathological examination

Karoui Abir, Cherif Ahmed, Chaffai Olfa, Saidi Wassim, Sahraoui Ghada, Menjli Sana, Chanoufi Mohamed Badis, Boujelbene Nadia, Abouda Hssine Saber

Abstract: Background: Leiomyomas beyond the uterus are defined by benign smooth muscle cell tumors outside of the uterus. Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare type of uterine leiomyoma and is characterized by the formation and growth of benign leiomyoma tissue within the vascular wall. Herein, we present a case of Intravenous leiomyomatosis successfully treated by surgical removal and a review of actual medical recommendations. Case presentation: A 49 - year-old woman, maghrébin, G3 P2, no family history of uterine myomas mentioned, having systemic arterial hypertension, presented to our department with hypogastric pain and abnormal uterine bleeding in the prior five months resulting in anemia which required iron supplementation. On physical examination the vital signs were normal. A palpable mass in the hypogastrium was noted. The rest of the exam was unremarkable. Pelvic ultrasound showed a huge uterus with multiple heterogeneous leiomyomas, including at least one intracavity. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging were not done initially due to the unaffordability of the patient. The initial diagnosis was leiomyoma. The decision to perform a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was taken. The abdomen was opened by a midline vertical incision. During surgery, multiple subserosal, intramural and submucosal fibroids ranging from 2 cm × 3 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm were seen. On pathological examination, the uterus measured 19 cm in the largest diameter and weighed 1.3 kg. The cut section showed white nodular myometrial masses. Microscopically, intravascular growth of benign smooth muscle cells is found within venous channels lined by endothelium. The diagnosis of Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus without malignant transformation was retained. The patient was monitored for 14 months and subsequent computed tomography did not reveal any evidence of tumor recurrence. The follow-up will be performed annually till the age of menopause. Conclusion: Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a benign, rare and potentially lethal pathology. It especially affects premenopausal women with a history of uterine myoma, whether operated on or not. They require close and prolonged follow-up because of the high risk of recurrence.
Keywords: benign smooth muscle cells / Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus

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